Clinical Trials by Phase

This represents the first time a drug has been used in humans, and is used to evaluate how a drug should be given (by mouth, injected into the blood or injected into the muscle); how often; and what dose is safe. A Phase I study usually enrolls only a small number of patients, sometimes as few as a dozen
A Phase II study continues to test the safety of the drug and begins to evaluate how well the new drug works, usually focusing on a particular type of cancer
These studies test a new drug, a new combination of drugs, or a new surgical procedure in comparison to the current standard. A participant will usually be assigned to the standard group or the new group at random (called randomization). Phase III studies often enroll large numbers of people and may be conducted at many doctors' offices, clinics, and cancer centers nationwide


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